Risk Control For Legal Representative In The Company Under Chinese Law

Legal Representative is a basic company system under current China Corporate Law. That is, any new established company should appoint a natural person as the companys legal representative, who may act on behalf of the company. The legal representative can be either Chinese or foreigner.

With regards the conditions for acting as a legal representative, under current law, the following persons cannot be appointed as legal representative:

1.has no civil disposing capacity or his/her civil disposing capacity is limited;

2. criminal penalty or mandatory criminal measure is being enforced on him/her;

3. is being wanted by the police or state security departments;

4. is sentenced due to taking graft or committing bribery, offences against property, disrupting socialism market economic order and has completed a term of imprisonment for less than 5 years; is sentenced due to other offences and has completed a term of imprisonment for less than 3 years; or is sentenced to depriving of political rights due to offence and has completed a term of imprisonment for less than 5 years;

5. ever was the legal representative or director or manager of any enterprise which was bankrupted due to bad operation and was responsible for the bankruptcy of such enterprise, and it is less than three years since the completion of liquidation for the bankruptcy of the enterprise;

6. ever was the legal representative of any enterprise which was revoked Business License due to illegal activities and was responsible for such illegal activities, and it is less than three years since the revocation of Business License;

7. has large outstanding personal debts.

In consideration of the special position of legal representative in a company, as well as the power he is granted and the legal responsibility he shall take, on the issue of selection and appointment of legal representative, the company shall have to strike a balance between power distribution and risk control.

Under current corporate law, the legal representative of a company appointed under its articles of association shall be its chairman of the board of directors, its acting director or its manager. Therefore, generally speaking, legal representative, in most cases, is core people in a company. However, in some cases, to prevent potential risk, the investor of the company may also appoint nominal legal representative, whose name is lent and who has nothing with companys business.

From the perspective of legal representative, although he is granted with company power and can act on behalf of the company, he shall probably take civil, administrative or criminal liability due to company behavior, or even is subject to emigration restrictions. From this point, potential risk is there for a legal representative.

I. Potential legal risk for a legal representative

Generally speaking, when a legal representative acts in accordance with the laws, administrative regulations and articles of association of a company, such acts shall be deemed acts of the company and the liability arising out of such activities are assumed by the company. Therefore, generally a legal representative does not take any personal responsibility for such acts.

However, in special circumstances, due to violation of the law, regulation and articles of association by legal representative, or in special cases, a legal representative shall take personal liability as follows:

Potential Civil Liability of a Legal Representative

A legal representative shall take civil liability in the following two situations:

1. A legal representative may be liable to compensate for loss suffered by the company if such loss is caused due to misconduct or negligence of the legal representative.

The act of a legal representative represents the company and any consequences relating to the act shall be assumed by the company itself. However, if the act of a legal representative is against the law, regulation or articles of association, which damages companys interest, the company is entitled to request the legal representative to compensate any loss from the misconduct.

2. A legal representative may take responsibility due to his violation of fiduciary duty and duty of care to the company.

The violation of fiduciary duty and duty of care to the company herein refers to the situation where a legal representative takes advantage of his position by obtaining bribes or any other illegal gains, or misappropriating company assets for personal interest. The legal representative shall compensate to the company for any loss due to the illegal act.

Potential Administrative Liability of a Legal Representative

Under any of the following circumstances, except company liability assumed by the company itself, its legal representative may be subject to administrative sanctions, fines and if the offences constitutes a crime, criminal liability shall be investigated:

a. conducting illegal operations beyond the range approved and registered by the registration authority;
b. concealing facts from the registration and tax authorities and practicing fraud;
c. secretly withdrawing funds or hiding property to evade repayment of debts;
d. disposing of assets without authorization after the company is dissolved;
e. failing to apply for registration and make a public announcement promptly when the company undergoes a change or termination, thus causing interested persons to suffer significant losses;
f. engaging in other activities prohibited by law, damaging the interests of the state or the public interest.

Unless the legal representative can prove he was not aware of such acts and was not subjectively, at fault or delinquent in fulfilling his duty, he may bear administrative liability for the acts of the company that is in violation of the law and regulation.

Potential Criminal Liability of a Legal Representative

The criminal liability of a legal representative, in case of company crime, is a special liability associated with company crime, where the legal representative belongs to a person who is directly in charge or person is directly responsible for the crime. For example, according to article 153 of criminal law, in case of company smuggling, besides the fine which is imposed on the company, the persons who are directly in charge and the persons who are directly responsible for the crime shall be sentenced to fixed term imprisonment of not more than three years or criminal detention; if the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to fixed term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than 10 years; if the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to fixed term imprisonment of not less than 10 years.

Although the laws do not provide the scope of the term “persons who are directly in charge and person who is directly responsible”, in legal practice, a legal representative is commonly deemed to be within such scope and will be found liable for the criminal acts committed by the company.

There are other company crimes where a legal representative may be subject to criminal liability, including but not limited to, crimes of manufacturing and selling toxic or harmful foodstuff, crime of falsely declaring registered capital, crime of false capital contribution, or withdrawing capital contribution upon registration, crime of issuing stock or bonds by fraudulent means, crime of presenting false financial statement, crime of impairing liquidation, etc.

Compulsory Measures that may apply to a Legal Representative

In one of the following circumstances, a legal representative may be subject to compulsory measures:

1. If a company has unsettled civil cases or fails to perform its duties imposed by legal documents, judicial authorities may impose compulsory measures on its legal representative, including restrictions on him leaving the country;

2. If a company has entered bankruptcy proceedings, its legal representative shall not leave his place of domicile without courts permission;

3. If a company defaults on its tax payment, the tax authorities may restrict its legal representative from leaving the country.

II. How to prevent legal risk to a maximum extent

For the legal risk a legal representative may face, the following measure shall be adopted to reduce the occurrence of such risk:

1. The legal representative shall carry out its fiduciary duty and duty of care to the company and act as allowed by the law, regulation and articles of association. When dealing with company matters, the legal representative shall avoid making any decision just based on his own experience blindly and shall try to find legal base for any decision. A formal legal advise shall be sought from a legal consultant to prevent potential risk;

2. The legal representative shall be careful in signing on various legal documents. As a legal representative, it is common he shall need to sign a lot of legal documents, which may relates to the company finance, business and legal aspects. The legal representative shall not be in a casual manner in signing any document which is submitted by his staff without proper examination, which may cause serious problem afterwards and cannot be remedied;

3. Authorization Limit. In some cases, the legal representative has business trip or has to stay oversea for a long-term basis. For the sake of convenience, some of them like to authorize other person in the company to carry out his power as a legal representative. The problem is that such authorization is without any written form and limit to the scope and term of authorization. More seriously, the legal representative does not care about the exercise of the power by the authorized person. In extreme cases, the authorized person abuses the power and even conducts illegal activities with such authorization. After occurrence of the problems, the legal representative cannot easily exclude himself from liability. Therefore, proper authorization and supervision is necessary;

4. The company shall keep a well-organized company regulation. The best is each person in the company attends his own duties and the responsibility arrives a person In case of company crime, if the company does keep a well regulation which can prove the legal representative is not the person who is directly in charge for the criminal activity and knows nothing about the illegal decision made by other person within their duty in the company, the legal representative may be probably exempted from liability. On the contrary, without any company regulation, the legal representative is undoubtedly the prime suspect as a person who is directly in charge.

Adoption Network Law Center Consultants & Newborn Adoptions

Many dream of having a child, and those who are unable to have children may opt to adopt one. Finding the right child to raise in your loving home is very important, and professionals like Adoption Network Law Center consultants can help couples find the right child. Consulting services that assist with newborn adoptions can be the first step to realize this goal.

Some families may choose to adopt children that come from troubled homes. While this is a noble act, they must ensure that they have the resources to deal with the issues of emotionally fragile children. Case in point: an article that was featured in The Telegraph shares the story of a mother named Rachel who was having trouble with her adopted son Tom. Tom came from an abusive home.

Prior to the adoption, the caretaker had informed Rachel and her husband of Tom’s emotional issues. At times, things got out of hand, and both Tom and his adoptive parents ended up needing the help of professional counselors. Families in similar situations can also turn to professional counselors to resolve their issues and allow emotional wounds to heal. Although difficult to do, there are ways to handle kids whose early lives were troubled.

Adoption means the child will be entering an entirely new world, away from the environment he has grown accustomed to. This poses some challenges, both for the new parents and the child. If adoptive parents dont think they are equipped to handle these challenges, they can choose to adopt a newborn. Adoption services like Adoption Network Law Center will gladly help them with this.

In this arrangement, the adjustment period will not be as hard on the child, if at all. A birth mother also has the option to meet the adoptive familythis way, she can ensure that her baby will grow up with the same beliefs and values she has if she prefers it that way. Even if she chooses to limit contact, the adoptive parents will still be evaluated via an adoption homestudy process that will be conducted in the state they live in.

Compassionate adoption services assist birth mothers who are dealing with unplanned pregnancies. Apart from exclusively recognizing pre-qualified families for the adoption process, these services can also provide assistance to birth mothers in terms of free housing and limited financial support (as permitted by state law).

Posted in Law

Fake Ids – Are They Legal Or Illegal

When it comes to fake IDs, there are two different kinds of identification that individuals seek out: illegal and legal. The illegal version of fake identification has long become a known activity as underage students usually wish to obtain such an item in order to gain access to bars and clubs. Fake IDs also come in handy when an individual wishes to pass as another individual to avoid legal action, such as getting arrested. Legally made and acquired fake IDs are often used as gag gifts for family or friends. Below you will find some of the things that separate legal and illegal false identification.

Legal Card Characteristics

One of the number one ways to break the rules regarding legal fake IDs is to attempt the duplication of a pre-existing identification card. The production, distribution, and purchase of fake IDs are legal because they do not fall under the guidelines pertaining to the infringement of copyright that identity cards may possess.

Overall, the public has the right to print and sell cards that could state anything from “Cheating Husband Investigator” to “Private Detective College ID.” Just because the details printed on a card are fake or stand for things that may not even exist, it doesn’t mean you are breaking the law by receiving, printing, or carrying such identification. When it comes to fake IDs, it is not the card itself that attracts the attention of law enforcement, but the manner in which the cardholder uses the identification. For example, it is illegal to use fake IDs (regardless of what they state) as a way to mislead others regarding your age or status.

Common Misuses of Fake IDs

Regardless of the details pertaining to a fake ID, the date of birth is one of the most vital pieces of information that allows cardholders to cross the line into illegal activity. Some of the frequent abuses of such identification include purchasing alcohol from a gas station when underage; buying cigarettes when under the legal age; and gaining entrance to a club or bar with an age limit that sells alcohol. When caught using a fake ID for the above purposes, the law may inflict legal punishment on the cardholder.

Crossing the Line

When considering the purchase of a fake ID that will not go towards illegal practices, there is a wealth of possibilities to consider. However, there is an assortment of cards and documents that companies are not allowed to make copies of, including fake or false passports, driving licenses, immigration cards and certificates, as well as fake national age identification.

Obtaining Legal Justice from Wrongful Death

Personal Injury Protection,” or PIP, is a ordinary element to a car shelter contract. Few states enjoin causative container owners to get PIP endorsement on their cars. Personal injury protection contract present concealment medical bills for you or anyone added in your container in the event of a car occurrence. It is an incredibly utile way to abstain whatsoever of the evidential scrutiny bills that oftentimes finish from car accidents. A tarnished car and a disorganised leg are not tawdry to fix, but protection reportage will supply.

One of the city things active PIP is that it provides reportage disregard less of who is at imperfectness for an occurrence. Any states only eff “recipient bad insurance” that leave exclusive guarantee the different driver when the policyholder is at shift for an accident. Most PIP policies are illustrious as “subrogable.” This implies that the insurance someone’s contract companion give pay for their bills now masses an occurrence. A human blistered in a destroy with PIP module not get to pay for scrutiny bills and then inactivity to be salaried.

In purporting to dissent the epilepsy of a someone for the imposition of susceptibility on sellers for injuries caused by defective products, Unquiet also vests paradoxical certainty in activity incentives and a regulatory group with failings that are maddening to critics crossways the semipolitical spectrum. Its superficial satisfaction with the story of first-party wellbeing insurance enjoyed by loss victims today is no lower puzzling. And strikingly absent from the full render is any advert of the goods principle that a cause wrongfully hurt by the merchantability of a critical creation should be competent to concur the concern accountable for her injuries. When one begins with a solon graphic attend, one speedily comes to realise that the standard occurrence for products susceptibility law is actually quite gentle.

A wrongful death lawsuit claims that the dupe was killed as a ending of carelessness (or else type of actionable action) on the endeavor of the person or entity beingness sued, and that the dupe’s survivors are entitled to monetary amends as a result of the unconventional channel.

This write of exact is diverse from a modal carelessness cause, which is filed by the organism skinned for the resulting amends. Originally low “grassroots law” (the unspecialised valid principles passed from England to the Unified States over hundreds of period), a wrongful change take did not survive based upon the cerebration that the arrogate died with the individual where there was no way to settle him for compensation. The extant phratry members then could not affirm indemnification from the someone who caused the somebody’s dying. Over the geezerhood, states eff from the decease of the mortal as substantially as an inducement to act carefully and safely. Today, all states person whatsoever assemblage of a wrongful modification avow spreading in compel.

Hemp And Legal Implications

Copyright 2006 Francesca Black

In 1619 Jamestown Colony, Virginia enacted laws ordering farmers to grow hemp. Similar laws were enacted in Massachusetts in 1631, Connecticut in 1632 and the Chesapeake Colonies in the mid-1700’s.

Even though the U.S. government encouraged American farmers to grow hemp for WWII and had even accepted it as payment of taxes in Colonial America, it is now prohibited to grow hemp in the United States.

Cannabis hemp was legal tender in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800’s. you could even pay your taxes with cannabis hemp. In the mid-to-late 1800’s the 2nd & 3rd most commonly used medications were concentrated cannabis extracts and resins (a.k.a. hashish). At one time American companies Eli Lily, Squibb and Park Davis produced cannabis extract medicines but clearly that is no longer the case..

Today the THC levels in industrial hemp are so low that no one could ever get high from smoking it. Moreover, hemp contains a relatively high percentage of another cannabinoid, CBD, that actually blocks the marijuana high. Hemp, it turns out, is not only not marijuana; it could be called ‘antimarijuana.’ Although opponents of hemp production claim that hemp fields will be used to hide marijuana fields, this is unlikely because cross-pollination between hemp and marijuana plants would significantly reduce the potency of the marijuana plant.

On March 12, 1998, Canada legalized hemp production and set a limit of 0.3% THC content that may be present in the plants and requires that all seeds be certified for THC content.

In 1942 the US government strongly encouraged hemp cultivation to help with the war effort, going so far as to produce a film entitled “Hemp For Victory”. Hemp was grown commercially (with increasing government interference) in the United States until the 1950s. While congress expressly expected the continued production of industrial hemp, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics lumped industrial hemp with marijuana, as its successor the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), does to this day. Even though the US government encouraged American farmers to grow hemp for WWII and had even accepted it as payment of taxes in Colonial America, it is now prohibited to grow hemp in the United States. While industrial hemp and marijuana may look somewhat alike to the untrained eye, an easily trained eye can easily distinguish the difference.

The European Union subsidizes its farmers to grow industrial hemp. Hemp seed is not psychoactive and cannot be used as a drug. Hemp Seed does not contain THC. From 1842 through the 1880s, extremely strong marijuana (then known as cannabis extractums), hashish extracts, tinctures, and elixirs were routinely the second and third most-used medicines in America for humans (from birth through old age). These extracts were also used in veterinary medicine until the 1920s.

The illogical and unrealistic reasons for not growing hemp should be set aside now, as this crop will be a wonderful economic boon. In 1935 116 million pounds (58,000 tons) of hemp seed was used to make paints and varnishes yet it has been effectively prohibited in the United States since the 1950s.

Hemp was doomed by the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, which placed an extremely high tax and made it effectively impossible to grow industrial hemp. While congress expressly expected the continued production of industrial hemp, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics lumped industrial hemp with marijuana, as its successor the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), does to this day. While industrial hemp and marijuana may look somewhat alike to the untrained eye, an easily trained eye can easily distinguish the difference.

No marijuana grower would hide marijuana plants in a hemp field. Marijuana is grown widely spaced to maximize flowers and leaves; hemp is grown tightly-spaced to maximize stalk and is usually harvested before it goes to seed. It is also the first place where law enforcement officials would look. No one would want to smoke industrial hemp. Industrial hemp has a THC content of between 0.05 and 1%. Marijuana has a THC content of 3% to 20%. To receive a standard psychoactive dose would require a person to power-smoke 10-12 hemp cigarettes over a very short period of time. The large volume, high temperature of vapor, gas and smoke would be difficult for a person to withstand, much less enjoy.

The US State Department must certify each year that a foreign nation is cooperating in the war on drugs. The European Union subsidizes its farmers to grow industrial hemp. Those nations are not on this list, because the US State Department distinguishes the difference between hemp and marijuana. Over 30 industrialized democracies do distinguish hemp from marijuana. International treaties regarding marijuana make an exception for hemp, and trade alliances such as NAFTA allow for the importation of hemp. In fact NAFTA allow for the importation of hemp. All members of the Group of Seven Industrialized Nations permit hemp cultivation except one-the United States.

Protect Your Legal rights as an Employee Through the Help of Employment Lawyers NYC

The employee should have an excellent working bond with their employer regardless of the nature of their work. Both parties should benefit and grow in this relationship. Salary is provided to the employees in return for their time, know-how, and abilities while the employer receives the return of investment. This sounds great. Nonetheless, but this isn’t the situation in all workplaces./p>

If the labor law or employment law is implemented appropriately by both employee and the employer then work issues won’t possibly happen. Many people might end up breaking some work laws without realizing it since these laws are quite complicated. This is the main reason why troubles in workplaces happen. In times like this, the assistance of an expert and proficient new york employment attorney is crucial.

There are different factors why work problems are occurring. This is due to the fact that personnel are not all alike. They have different thoughts and religious beliefs as well as personality and characteristics. Problems at work are more likely to take place when the employer harasses his employee or perhaps, fails to pay him according to what is specified on in the contract. Whatever work-related concerns would that be, they could be handled by employment attorneys successfully.

Main Reasons Why It is Important to Get Employment Lawyer NYC

Wrongful termination and unjust payments are the most common work-related issues that result in litigation. Accident of personnel due to dangerous work practices and sexual harassment need to undergo legal process as well. There are also many workers who have filed complaints to the court as their retirement plans and benefits are not given to them. Engaging in a legal battle requires a tremendous amount of time, money, and determination. With the assistance and representation of reputable employment attorneys nyc, workers can conquer this challenge easily.

Making certain that their clientele understand their rights is part of their responsibilities. Clearly, they know what legal action to have depending on their clients’ case. The attorney will attempt to mediate between the employer and staff if the dispute is still negotiable. However, if the issue is serious, then they will represent the employee during court hearings.

Employment attorneys who work for employees always make sure the odds will be on their favor. They will carefully evaluate documents and contracts in order to finding any glitch that could assist strengthen the case. Then again, employment attorneys who work for employers/company owners adopt an approach called -preventive lawyering’. This is a method in making firm policies that are in accordance to local and federal/state employment laws and regulations.

When conflicts on employment related problems occurs, litigation is not always the ideal solution, a fact that professional employment attorneys is aware of. Considering that filing a lawsuit is laborious, these professionals find other ways to deal with it in a different way. A person’s career, life, and name are at stake when engaging in litigations that’s the reason why they have to consider their option carefully.

The written and oral communication skill of an nyc employment attorney should be excellent. It is also best to ensure that the legal professional is specializing in employment laws, and has stayed abreast with any changes in the law. The very best lawyers are sensitive to the needs of their clientele, despite being analytical in their approach. Only with these qualities will he win the case.

When you wish to get started at tackling the issues regarding Employment Lawyer, then you should go at your own pace where you’re most comfortable with. Hastening results in a poor circumstance as you’ll often find yourself missing over particulars which are important. What you need to do is to work on it consistently and you’ll realize how advantageous this way is. For clear explanation for Employment Lawyer Nyc, just search through https://www.google.com/+YoungMaLLPNewYork.

Basic Information About Israeli Law

The Israeli legal system is based on common law, also known as case law or precedent law, which is based on decisions of courts and judges, but it has some parts of civil law as well.

This means that Israel does not have a formal Constitution, even though it was decided when the State of Israel was founded, that one would be written. In this way, the Israeli laws are similar to the ones in the United Kingdom, but in recent years, the Israeli court system and laws have also been heavily influenced by the laws in the USA and Canada.

The Common Law system was implemented by the British when they were governing Palestine before the independent state was founded, and several things have never been changed since then. Even some older laws, dating back to the Ottoman rule of Palestine, still remain in the Israeli law.
This is why Israeli law can be said to be as diverse as the history of the country itself.

As for the court system, there are several courts in Israel that influence the current laws. The Shalom Court, Beit Mishpat HaShalom in Hebrew, is a smaller court that handles only civil cases, where the disputed amount is less than 2,5 million NIS (New Israeli shekels, the currency of Israel), but it never deals with issues relating to ownership of land or with criminal cases where the sentence could be over 6 years of prison.
The Shalom Courts are based in the towns themselves, and most Israeli towns have one.
The District Court, or the Beit Mishpat Mehozi in Hebrew, deals with civil as well as criminal matters that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Shalom Courts. It also deals with disputes related to ownership of land. People can also appeal sentences in the Shalom courts to the District Court.
Currently, there are 6 Disctrict Courts in Israel: in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Petach Tikva, Beersheva and in Nazareth.
The Israeli Supreme Court, the Beit Mishpat Elyon, mostly deals with appeals from the District Courts, but also hears cases that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the District Courts, including political cases and international cases.
There are also several Labour Tribunals in Israel, that deal with all cases related to labour law, for instance cases between an employee and an employer.
Interestingly enough, Israel also has religious tribunals, and some very specific legal matters, such as cases where marriage and divorce is discussed, and so on, are judged by the religious tribunals. Since the population of Israel is multi-religious, there are several religious tribunals for different religions, including one for the Jewish community, one for the Muslim community, one for the Catholic Christian community, and so on.

Basic Laws Of Electronics

Thanks to the physical laws of electronics, circuit analysis is very procedural. This is the second entry in a tutorial in basic electronics. The first entry covered basic electronic concepts such as voltage, current, and power. This session will cover Ohm’s Law, and Kirchhoff’s Laws of voltage and current. These are the fundamental laws needed for circuit analysis and design.

Resistors and Ohm’s Law
Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist that in 1826 experimentally determined most basic laws that relate to voltage and current for a resistor.

Ohm’s law basically states that the resistance of a component (commonly a resistor) is equal to the voltage dropped over the resistor divided by the current going through it.

This law makes it relatively easy to find one of three values: voltage across a resistance, the resistance value itself, or the current flowing through the resistance (as long as the other two values are known).

Nodes, Branches, and Loops
These three concepts must be understood for basic circuit analysis. They help determine if components are in series or parallel and if the components share the same current or have the same voltage drops.

A branch represents a single circuit component such as a resistor or voltage source.

A node is a point where two or more branches connect.

A loop is any closed path in a circuit.

Elements are in series if they exclusively share a single node. Elements that are in series share the same current.

Elements are in parallel if they are connected to the same two nodes. Elements in parallel have the same voltage across them.

Kirchhoff’s Laws
The first of Kirchhoff’s Laws is Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). This law states that the sum of all current entering a node or enclosed area of a circuit is equal to zero. Simply put, current entering a node or area equals the current leaving the node or area.

The second of Kirchhoff’s Laws is Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). This law states that the sum of all voltages around a closed path or loop is equal to zero. Simply put, the sum of voltage drops equals the sum of voltage rises.

This is found by following the loop in one direction (the direction does not matter). If the positive terminal is hit first, the voltage is added. If the negative terminal is hit first, the voltage is subtracted. Together these values will equal zero.

Once all of the voltages are found, we can start the loop anywhere we want. I find it convenient to start at the negative terminal of a main voltage source. Since we hit a negative terminal first, we subtract it. Now we simply finish the loop and add the voltages together.

This law comes in very handy for analysis.

Basic DC Analysis
By combining Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws, basic DC circuits are relatively easy to analyze. Knowing that all voltages in a loop add up to zero and all currents entering a node, minus currents leaving a node also equals zero, most current and voltage values can be easily obtained.

If a loop contains one voltage source and multiple resistances, voltage division (eq. 1) should be used to find the value of voltage drops across the known resistances. Once the voltage across the known resistance is found, Ohm’s law (eq. 2) can be used to determine the current flowing through the resistance.

Eq.1 Voltage Division:
((voltage source in volts) (resistor of interest in ohms))/(sum of resistance in loop)

Eq.2 Ohm’s Law:
(voltage across a resistance) = (known resistance)(current flowing through resistance)

Keep in mind that resistors in series can be added to give total resistance between two nodes. The total resistance between two nodes that have resistors in parallel is found using eq. 3 below.

Eq. 3 Equivalent Resistance (Req) of Resistors in parallel:
Req = ((resistance in branch 1)(resistance in branch 2)) / (sum of resistances in both branches)

There is much more to be said about DC circuit analysis but most would go beyond the scope of this article. The purpose of this article is to give a basic understanding of the laws and concepts of basic electronics.

Other concepts that make DC circuit analysis easier are current division, mesh analysis, and nodal analysis. These techniques use the rules behind KVL, KCL, and Ohm’s Law but would require a visual example for thorough explanation.

I hope that this short tutorial has been helpful to anyone who is new to the world of electronics either as a hobbyist or as a technician trying to learn electronics repair.

A Review Of Attorney Gary P. Price And Lewis & Kappes Law Firm

Talk about ‘property’ and the first connection you are likely to make is ‘real estate,’ such as a house, a farmland, or a commercial building, that you can actually touch, feel, and live in. An intellectual property (IP) refers to something entirely different. Any idea that takes on a form and later finds expressions as a film, a book, a TV show, a game, or anything else that people play, watch, read, and recognize can be classified as IP. Trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, patents, literature, music, and art are all intellectual properties. To put it simply, IP is a creation of imagination over which a corporation or an individual enjoys legal monopoly.

Incidentally, the term ‘intellectual property’ is also used to refer to those laws protecting such monopolies. These laws have been designed to uphold the rights of the owner of an IP. Cases related to violation of these laws can be quite complicated. For this reason, it is important to hire an experienced legal professional. This article reviews attorney Gary P. Price, who serves in the Lewis & Kappes law firm as a director in the intellectual property team and specializes in civil litigation, intellectual property, appeals, and mediation. A registered mediator, Mr. Price has vast experience in handling cases ranging from commercial litigation, personal injury, and premises liability to civil rights claims, anti-trust, and copyright infringement.

Education And Professional Experience

After completing his graduation and post-graduation from the University of Wisconsin, Gary P. Price followed up with a degree in law from the Indiana University. According to www.lewis-kappes.com, he has worked as law clerk in the Supreme Court of Indiana in addition to serving as an adjunct faculty in Indiana Central University, Butler University, and Indianapolis Law School. HIS wide experience has made him exceptionally proficient in the methodology of trial practice.

Gary P. Price has represented clients in the Federal District Court in the southern and northern districts of Indiana and the U.S. Court of Appeals (Seventh Circuit, Federal Circuit and Eleventh Circuit). He is currently affiliated with

* Indianapolis Bar Association * Indiana State Bar Association * Indiana Trial Lawyers Association * The Association of Trial Lawyers of America

Gary P. Price was honored as the Indiana Super Lawyer (general litigation) from 2004 to 2009 consecutively. He has also received the Appellate Advocacy Award (1977) and Woodward Fellowship (1978). Mr. Price has authored ‘Administrative Law’ and co-authored ‘Workmen’s Compensation.’

Notable Cases

The team of intellectual property lawyers at Lewis & Kappes, including Gary P. Price, has successfully handled several cases related to violation of intellectual property rights, misappropriation, and copyright infringement. The following are some of of the types of cases handled by this powerful legal team:

* They have negotiated licensing rights of copyrighted material and handled software licensing claims * They have defended clients in trade secret claims and secured damages for trade secret misappropriation * This team, including Gary P. Price, has successfully defended trademark infringement claims and secured registered trademarks * They have taken up patent infringement cases and resolved those by negotiation

The skilled team of intellectual property attorneys in Lewis & Kappes, including Gary P. Price, is empowered with extensive legal experience that makes them highly efficient in handling all kinds of cases related to intellectual property.

Information On How Drug And Alcohol Testing Becomes Legal

Employers are keen enough to make sure that their workplace is free from alcohol or drug abuse. They are aware that drug and alcohol abuse will cause ill-health, distract staff production and performance as well as increase the possibility of injuries and accidents.

Because of the risks associated to drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace, companies can implement their own policies to monitor the health of their personnel. This monitoring includes doing legal drug and alcohol abuse tests.

Drug Or Alcohol Screening and Employee Rights

While companies have the right to conduct alcohol and drug screening in the office, this still requires the consent of their employees. Normally, employers have the ground to perform the testing under an occupational health and safety policy as specified in the company handbook or work contract of their personnel. Testing can occur during applicant testing, random testing, planned testing, post-accident testing, and treatment-related testing.

What Happens if an Employee is Positive to Substance Abuse?

In some states, companies are allowed to take disciplinary actions which include dismissal without the need to conduct another testing to confirm the laboratory result. But other states may need a confirmatory screening before companies can take disciplinary actions. In a few states workers who’re positive to drug and alcohol abuse is required to enroll in drug and alcohol rehab programs, usually at their expense in drug treatment centers.

Vital Considerations for Companies

Alcohol and drug screening in the office is supported by courts and this is really encouraged in some states. This implies that most private companies have all the freedom to perform the test. However, employers should know the limitations of the examination. They must ensure that the test is conducted for reasonable purposes in a way that it will not violate the law that protects men and women from unreasonable seizure and search.

Companies should also label the urine samples individually and ship them with security to maintain confidentiality. The testing results must only be revealed to them and to their worker after the results are released from their authorized laboratory. Moreover, if companies are doubtful on the legality of the drug and alcohol abuse testing, they can talk with their company lawyer or a business lawyer.

While employers do not need to comply with some legal requirements to perform drug and alcohol abuse testing in their workplace, it can be reasonable to do so. The financial safety of a firm can be protected by this examination.

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